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Unveiling the Impact of Wildfire Smoke on Indoor Air Quality in Long-Term Care Facilities

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Every year, wildfires across the western U.S. and Canada release plumes of smoke, affecting the air quality in various regions. In the Treasure Valley of southwestern Idaho, where Boise residents are no strangers to the yearly influx of wildfire smoke, a particular concern arises for seniors residing in long-term care facilities. These individuals, already vulnerable due to respiratory or cardiac conditions, face significant exposure to smoke pollution, as revealed by environmental toxicologist Luke Montrose's research.

Research Findings

Montrose's study, conducted in Idaho long-term care facilities, demonstrated alarming levels of smoke infiltration. In some instances, up to 100% of particulate matter from outside made its way into the buildings, making indoor air quality during smoke events comparable to outdoor conditions. The implications for the health of seniors, who make up a substantial portion of residents in nursing homes and assisted living facilities nationwide, are profound.

Potential Impact on Senior Care

Understanding and addressing the impact of wildfire smoke on indoor air quality could revolutionize the quality of care for the approximately 1.4 million seniors in Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes and nearly a million more in assisted living facilities. This research, spearheaded by Montrose and supported by the Idaho Health Care Association, holds the promise of being a game-changer in senior healthcare.

Growing National Issue

While western U.S. residents have long endured smoky summers, the repercussions of wildfires are no longer confined to specific regions. Smoke from distant wildfires, such as those in eastern Canada, now affects densely populated areas across the country. The escalation in the size, intensity, and duration of wildfires, fueled by climate change and forest mismanagement, indicates that the issue will continue to impact a growing number of people.

Health Risks of Wildfire Smoke

Wildfire smoke, composed of pollutants, water vapor, and fine debris, poses a significant public health problem. Particulate matter, especially PM 2.5, can penetrate deep into the lungs and bloodstream, leading to respiratory issues, asthma, and potential harm to lung function. Seniors, with their preexisting heart or lung conditions, are particularly vulnerable to these health risks.

Challenges and Solutions:

Despite the critical nature of the issue, there are currently no regulatory standards for indoor air quality in long-term care facilities. Montrose's efforts to install air quality monitors inside facilities aim to address this gap. By providing real-time data to facility operators, these monitors enable timely responses to protect residents. Some facilities in Idaho have already implemented changes, including pre-fire season checklists and the use of portable air filtration for vulnerable residents during intense smoke events.

Looking Ahead

Montrose continues his mission to expand the study, recruiting more nursing homes to install air quality monitors in Idaho, Colorado, and Montana. The hope is that this research will not only raise awareness about the impact of wildfire smoke on indoor air quality but also pave the way for potential policy changes at the state or local level to protect vulnerable populations from hazardous levels of smoke exposure.


As the threat of wildfires and their associated smoke becomes a national concern, addressing indoor air quality in long-term care facilities is crucial for safeguarding the health and well-being of seniors. Montrose's research underscores the need for proactive measures, including policy discussions and the installation of air quality monitors, to ensure that long-term care facilities are better equipped to protect their residents during wildfire events.


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