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Leaky Gut: What Is It and What Does It Mean for You?

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Leaky gut is a condition that affects the digestive system and is an increasingly common issue in today's society. Leaky gut refers to a condition where the walls of the intestines become permeable, allowing substances such as undigested food, toxins, and other debris to leak into the bloodstream. This condition can lead to a host of health issues, including autoimmune diseases, food sensitivities, chronic fatigue, and joint pain.

It is important to understand this condition and its implications for personal health, as leaky gut affects the body in a variety of ways. When the lining of the intestines is damaged, it can lead to inflammation, which can compromise the immune system and increase the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Additionally, leaky gut can interfere with nutrient absorption, leading to deficiencies and malnutrition.

Causes of Leaky Gut

Leaky gut, also known as increased intestinal permeability, can have various causes that can range from lifestyle choices to underlying medical conditions.

Poor diet

Consuming a diet that is high in processed foods, added sugars, and unhealthy saturated and trans fats can contribute to the development of leaky gut. Research shows that diets high in processed foods and sugar can increase inflammation and damage the intestinal lining, resulting in increased permeability.

Chronic stress

Stressful events, chronic anxiety, and overworking can impair the function of the gut microbiome and weaken the intestinal barrier. Stress can stimulate the release of the hormone cortisol, which can increase inflammation, damage the gut lining, and reduce secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is crucial for maintaining the gut's immunity and integrity.

Environmental toxins

Toxins in the environment such as pesticides, heavy metals, and air pollution can disrupt the gut's microbiome and harm the intestinal lining. Chemicals in personal care products, plastics, and cleaning products can affect the diversity and composition of gut bacteria and increase inflammation, contributing to leaky gut.


Certain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, and acid-blocking drugs can damage the intestinal lining, disrupt the gut microbiome, and increase the risk of developing leaky gut.

Autoimmune disorders

Autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are associated with increased intestinal permeability. Chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation can weaken the gut barrier and lead to increased absorption of antigens and toxins, exacerbating the autoimmune response.

Symptoms of Leaky Gut

Leaky gut can cause a variety of symptoms, some of which may seem unrelated to digestive health. The symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the condition.

Food sensitivities

Food sensitivities are common in people with leaky gut. Increased intestinal permeability leads to the absorption of larger and undigested proteins into the bloodstream, which can trigger an immune response. As a result, certain foods that were previously well-tolerated may now cause adverse reactions such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation, or abdominal pain. Common food triggers include gluten, dairy, soy, and corn.

Digestive issues

Leaky gut can damage the gut lining and disrupt the balance of gut bacteria, leading to various digestive problems such as bloating, gas, indigestion, heartburn, and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms may be exacerbated by certain foods or medications.

Skin problems

Due to the connection between the gut and the skin, leaky gut can cause skin problems, including rashes, eczema, psoriasis, acne, or rosacea. The skin acts as an important barrier to prevent infections and toxins from entering the body, and a strong gut barrier function is essential to maintain skin health.


Fatigue is a non-specific symptom that can have multiple causes, including leaky gut. Studies show that inflammation due to increased intestinal permeability can cause fatigue and reduce energy levels.

Joint pain

Leaky gut can also trigger joint pain in some individuals. Increased intestinal permeability leads to the absorption of undigested food particles and bacteria, which can trigger an immune response, leading to joint inflammation and pain. Some people may experience relief from joint pain by treating the underlying leaky gut.

How to Heal Leaky Gut

While there is no one-size-fits-all approach to healing leaky gut, there are several steps that one can take to improve gut health and seal the leaky gut lining.

Elimination diets

Eliminating foods that trigger inflammation and exacerbate leaky gut symptoms can be an effective way to manage and heal leaky gut. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, soy, corn, and processed foods. An elimination diet involves removing trigger foods for a period of time, such as a month or more, and then gradually reintroducing them one by one to identify which foods are causing symptoms.

Gut-healing nutrients

Certain nutrients are essential for gut healing, including L-glutamine, zinc, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Adding these to your diet, either through food or supplement form, can aid in repairing the gut lining and reducing inflammation.


Including beneficial bacteria through probiotic-rich foods or supplements is crucial for restoring the balance of gut bacteria and improving gut health. Probiotics can aid in reducing inflammation and supporting proper digestion.

Stress reduction techniques

Chronic stress can exacerbate leaky gut symptoms, so it's important to practice stress reduction techniques such as yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises to alleviate stress and reduce inflammation in the body.

Healing the gut lining

Certain compounds, such as collagen, aloe vera, and bone broth, contain gut-healing properties that can help repair the gut lining. These compounds are high in nutrients, amino acids, and other beneficial compounds that help regenerate and repair the gut lining.

While taking these steps can help aid in healing leaky gut, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine a specific treatment plan tailored to your individual needs. With the right approach, leaky gut can be managed and ultimately healed, leading to improved overall health and wellbeing.

Preventing Leaky Gut

Taking steps to prevent leaky gut can lead to improved gut health and overall wellbeing. Prevention involves making changes to lifestyle habits, diet, and reducing exposure to environmental toxins. Here are some ways to prevent leaky gut:

Healthy Diet and Lifestyle Habits

Eating a healthy, well-balanced diet is essential to maintaining gut health. Some dietary changes that can improve gut health include:

  • Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables
  • Incorporating fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds
  • Reducing processed foods, fried foods, and refined sugars
  • Drinking plenty of water

Another lifestyle habit that can aid in preventing leaky gut is getting regular exercise. Exercise helps to support a healthy immune system and promotes digestion.

Reducing Stress

Chronic stress can lead to increased inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of leaky gut. Incorporating stress-reducing techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can help to reduce stress and improve gut health.

Avoiding Environmental Toxins

Exposure to toxins such as pesticides, heavy metals, and chemicals in household products can contribute to inflammation and damage to the gut lining. It's important to limit exposure to environmental toxins by:

  • Choosing organic produce whenever possible
  • Using natural cleaning products
  • Filtering drinking water
  • Avoiding plastics and aluminum in food storage and preparation

Avoiding Unnecessary Medication

Certain medications such as antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can contribute to gut damage by altering the balance of gut bacteria and increasing inflammation. It's important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking medication and explore natural alternatives whenever possible.

Managing Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease can contribute to leaky gut symptoms. Managing these conditions with the help of a healthcare provider can help to reduce inflammation in the gut and improve gut health.

Incorporating these lifestyle changes can aid in preventing leaky gut and improve overall gut health. It's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine a specific prevention plan tailored to individual needs.


Leaky gut is a condition that affects many individuals and can have significant implications for overall health. The gut plays a vital role in the body's immune system, digestion, and nutrient absorption. When the gut lining becomes compromised, toxins, bacteria, and undigested food particles can leak into the bloodstream, leading to inflammation and a host of health problems.

It's important to address leaky gut by identifying the underlying causes and implementing strategies to promote gut health. Addressing underlying issues such as poor diet, chronic stress, environmental toxins, and autoimmune disorders can improve gut health and alleviate symptoms of leaky gut.

By adopting healthy diet and lifestyle habits, reducing stress, avoiding environmental toxins, and managing autoimmune disorders, individuals can prevent leaky gut and improve overall gut health. Incorporating gut-healing nutrients, probiotics, and elimination diets can help to heal the gut lining, promoting better nutrient absorption and reducing inflammation.

William H. McDaniel, MD

Dr. Robert H. Shmerling is the former clinical chief of the division of rheumatology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), and is a current member of the corresponding faculty in medicine at Harvard Medical School.

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