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Goosebumps Unraveled: Delving into a Common Phenomenon

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Have you ever wondered how or why you get goosebumps? Goosebumps are a natural body response that occur when tiny muscles at the base of each hair follicle contract, causing the hair to stand up and creating distinctive bumps on the skin.

In addition to being a common physical response, goosebumps are intriguing because they can be triggered by a range of stimuli, including emotional responses like fear or excitement, as well as physical stimuli like cold weather.

While goosebumps are often regarded as a minor curiosity, they can actually offer important insights into our biology and evolution. By exploring the causes, physiology, and evolutionary purpose of goosebumps, we can gain a deeper understanding of our own bodies and how they function.

So, why exactly should we care about goosebumps? Read on to discover everything you need to know about this fascinating phenomenon.

What Causes Goosebumps?

Goosebumps are a natural body response that can be triggered by a variety of stimuli, including cold weather, emotional responses, and medical conditions. Understanding the different causes of goosebumps can help you identify why you might be experiencing this phenomenon.

Cold Weather

One of the most common causes of goosebumps is cold weather. When you’re exposed to colder temperatures, the tiny muscles at the base of each hair follicle contract involuntarily, causing the hair to stand up. This creates a layer of insulation around your body, which can help you stay warm.

Emotional Responses

Emotional responses like fear, shock, and excitement can also cause goosebumps. This is because these emotions trigger the release of adrenaline, which activates the fight or flight response in your body. As a result, your muscles tense up and your hair stands on end, creating goosebumps.

Medical Conditions

In some cases, underlying medical conditions can cause goosebumps. For example, thyroid problems can cause goosebumps as a result of changes in hormone levels, while anxiety disorders can trigger the fight or flight response, leading to goosebumps.

Other medical conditions that can cause goosebumps include:

  • Menopause
  • The flu
  • Allergies
  • Infections

If you’re experiencing frequent or persistent goosebumps and you’re not sure why, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor to rule out any underlying medical conditions.

Physiology of Goosebumps

Goosebumps might seem like a simple and inconsequential reaction, but there's actually a complex physiology behind them. Understanding this physiology can give us insight into why and how they occur.

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic nervous system is responsible for the involuntary regulation of our bodily functions. For instance, it controls things like breathing, heart rate, and digestion. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS).

When you experience a sudden cold chill, fear, or anxiety, your SNS kicks in and triggers a "fight or flight" response. As a result, your body signals your arrector pili muscles to contract, causing your hair follicles to stand on end and producing goosebumps.

Arrector Pili Muscles

The arrector pili muscles are tiny muscles located under our skin's surface. They're connected to each hair follicle and contract when stimulated by the SNS. This contraction causes the hair to stand on end and the skin around it will bunch up, creating the characteristic "goosebumps" appearance.

The arrector pili muscles serve a critical purpose in animals with fur or feathers. When their hair stands on end, it creates an insulating layer that helps them retain heat and appear bigger to predators or potential mates.

Chemical Signaling

In addition to the autonomic nervous system, chemical signaling also plays a role in the physiology of goosebumps. The neurotransmitter dopamine has been found to stimulate the arrector pili muscles in mice. Another hormone, called oxytocin, also can lead to goosebumps, particularly in social, emotional, and sexual contexts.

While the exact mechanisms of these chemical signals in causing goosebumps in humans is still relatively unknown. It is believed that they play a key role in establishing a social connection or indicating strong emotional responses, allowing humans to communicate and connect with each other on a non-verbal level.

Evolutionary Purpose of Goosebumps

For human beings, goosebumps might primarily be an aesthetic phenomenon, something that occurs during moments of intense emotional response that bring us closer together, others indicate an underlying physiological response. However, goosebumps served an evolutionary purpose, not just for humans but for animals as well.


  • Goosebumps served an aesthetic purpose in many species by making them appear larger, thicker, or more intimidating to predators or potential mates.
  • In humans, goosebumps can enhance skin texture and make skin appear smoother, allowing individuals to feel better about themselves both personally and in social settings.


  • In animals, goosebumps can help insulate their skin when the temperature drops, keeping them warm and protecting them from the environment.
  • In humans, goosebumps can also provide some protection in cold weather by trapping a layer of air between the hair and the skin and creates some insulation.


  • Goosebumps can communicate social cues or emotional states to others. For example, the bristling of quills in porcupines or erect feathers in frightened birds warns away predators while goosebumps in humans can signal emotions like surprise, fear, or anger to others.
  • Goosebumps can also create a physical attraction or sexual arousal in humans; while, in some primates, goosebumps will appear or disappear when a male shows interest in a nearby female.

Whether it's for protection, aesthetic appeal, or communication, goosebumps played a pivotal role in helping early animals and humans survive and thrive. Even in the modern world, despite being mostly redundant, they serve an important social and psychological purpose. Our surprise, fear, awe, or other emotional states are not just communicated through our words, but also through the visible and physical cues like goosebumps.

Remedies for Goosebumps

Goosebumps are generally not a cause for concern, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t bothersome. They can be irritating, especially in a social situation where you may feel self-conscious. However, there are some remedies available to manage goosebumps.

Physical Methods

  • Warming up: If you're cold, try warming up by putting on extra layers of clothing or using a blanket. Goosebumps can temporarily go away when your body temperature increases.
  • Covering up: Covering up exposed skin can sometimes keep goosebumps at bay. Wear a hat, scarf, and gloves during the cold months to keep your body warm.
  • Cosmetics: Lotions, creams, or oils can help soothe and moisturize irritated skin, and likewise reducing goosebumps occurrence or intensity to an extent.

Emotional Control Techniques

  • Deep breathing: take slow, deep breathes through the nose, filling your belly with air and then slowly release it.
  • Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): a technique that includes various practices like body scan, sitting meditation, and yoga. Based on this technique, studies showed that mindfulness-based interventions can significantly reduce the intensity and frequency of goosebumps caused by negative emotions.

Medical Treatments for Underlying Conditions

  • Anxiety or anxiety disorders can cause goosebumps among other symptoms. A medical practitioner can prescribe anxiety medication, or suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or other anxiety interventions.
  • Thyroid problems can also be a factor in goosebumps. This can be treated with medication or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) under the supervision of a medical practitioner.
  • Other underlying conditions to consider are hypertension, asthma and Parkinson’s disease; treating these conditions with medication and other treatments can help relieve or reduce the frequency and intensity of goosebumps.

While it may seem that goosebumps are just a minor inconvenience, taking care of your body and managing related symptoms can help improve your quality of life. Remember that addressing the underlying emotional, physical, or medical causes of goosebumps can be the most effective remedy for both short-term and long-term relief.


We know that goosebumps can be triggered by cold temperature, strong emotions, and medical conditions like anxiety and thyroid problems. However, our knowledge of this phenomenon goes beyond that. We have seen how goosebumps can have aesthetic, protective, and communication purposes, making it an evolutionary adaptation that has lasted during millions of years.

Fortunately, there are various remedies available to manage, reduce, and alleviate goosebumps. From physiological methods such as warming up and covering exposed skin to emotional control such as deep breathing and mindfulness, and medical treatments for underlying medical conditions, finding the right solution will depend on the individual's needs. It is always essential to consult with a healthcare professional whenever needed.

William H. McDaniel, MD

Dr. Robert H. Shmerling is the former clinical chief of the division of rheumatology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), and is a current member of the corresponding faculty in medicine at Harvard Medical School.

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