Gaslighting and Mental Health: Recognizing and Addressing Psychological Manipulation

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that can heavily impact one's psychological and emotional well-being. It is a common tactic used by abusers to control their victims and gain power over them. The term gaslighting derives from a 1938 play called "Gas Light," where a husband manipulates his wife into believing she is losing her mind. This practice has now become an area of concern in modern society.

Gaslighting makes the victim question their own judgments and sense of reality, resulting in low self-esteem, self-doubt, and depression. Victims who struggle with gaslighting may feel confused and experience difficulties in identifying the manipulative behavior. However, by paying attention to the signs and consequences, we can gain insight into this phenomenon.

Gaslighting is a severe form of emotional manipulation that can deeply affect a person's mental health. While gaslighting tactics can vary from situation to situation, there are common techniques that abusers repeatedly use to manipulate their victims.

One technique that gaslighters frequently use is manipulation. Manipulation can include showing false affection to gain trust, then using that trust to control or harm the victim. Manipulation can come in many forms and can be used to gain anything from monetary gain to emotional control.

Another frequent tactic used by gaslighters is blaming the victim for their own actions or feelings. When confronted about negative behavior, gaslighters will often deflect blame, leading the victim to question their own sanity and judgment. Victims may be made to feel responsible for the abuser's actions, thereby creating a sense of guilt and eroding their self-esteem.

Social interactions can also be a tool for gaslighters, as they can use a victim's isolation to manipulate them further. Isolation can happen in many ways, from prohibiting contact with family and friends to discouraging participation in activities outside of the relationship. The result is a sense of loneliness and dependence on the abuser, making it even more difficult to break free from their control.

Gaslighting tactics are often highly effective in romantic relationships and the workplace. For example, in a romantic relationship, the abuser may frequently tell the victim that their perception of events is wrong. In the workplace, gaslighters may try to misrepresent facts to get their way, leading to a sense of confusion and frustration among colleagues.

The phenomenon of gaslighting is not unique to romantic relationships or the workplace. Gaslighting can be seen in all aspects of modern culture, from politics to the media. It's important to recognize the tactics of gaslighters and the impact that they can have on a victim's mental health. By acknowledging these behaviors and warning others, we can work together to create a more empathetic and understanding society that values mental health above all else.

Consequences of Gaslighting on Mental Health

Gaslighting is a pervasive form of emotional abuse that affects both the victim's mental and physical health. The subtle manipulation tactics that gaslighters use can result in severe negative consequences on the victim's overall well-being. Here are some ways that Gaslighting can harm mental health:

Depression and anxiety

People who are gaslighted may start to feel isolated, overwhelmed and uncertain about their thoughts and emotions. As a result, depression and anxiety are common side effects. The constant invalidation of one's experiences and feelings can make people feel disconnected from reality. This, in turn, leads them to feel helpless, anxious, and depressed.

Low self-esteem and self-doubt

Gaslighting has an insidious way of making you doubt yourself. The gaslighter's goal is to make you question your beliefs and perspectives, which can lead to a diminished sense of self-worth and confidence. Victims may start to believe that their thoughts are irrational, making them vulnerable to the gaslighter's manipulation. This can also lead to increased feelings of shame, self-doubt, and guilt.

PTSD and trauma

In severe cases, Gaslighting can lead to long-term mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gaslighting can lead to symptoms of trauma such as avoidance, nightmares, and heightened reactivity. It can take a lot of work and time to recover from the trauma, and consulting with mental health professionals is essential.

Addressing the stigma surrounding mental health

Gaslighters often rely on the stigma surrounding mental health to make their victims feel even more vulnerable and helpless. It is, therefore, crucial that we address the stigma surrounding mental health. By speaking openly about mental health challenges, seeking help, and normalizing mental health care, we can make it easier for victims of Gaslighting to seek the help they need.

Identifying Gaslighting

The first step in addressing Gaslighting is identifying it. This can be challenging because gaslighters are skilled at manipulating their victims. However, there are red flags and common tactics to watch for:

Red Flags

  • You find yourself doubting your memory of events.
  • Your thoughts and feelings are constantly being questioned or invalidated.
  • You are made to feel like you are overreacting to situations that upset you.
  • You feel as though you are always apologizing for things that are not your fault.
  • Your self-confidence is diminishing, and you are doubting your judgment.

Common Tactics

  • The gaslighter denies making certain statements or actions, making the victim feel like they are losing their mind.
  • The victim is continually criticized and made to feel like they are at fault for the abuse.
  • The abuser uses the victim's emotions against them, such as making them feel guilty or ashamed.
  • The abuser attempts to isolate the victim from family and friends, creating a situation where the victim only has the abuser for support.

Specific Examples of Gaslighting in Relationships

Gaslighting can happen in any relationship, including romantic partnerships, family, friendships, or workplace dynamics. Here are three examples:

  • In a romantic partnership, the abuser continually tells their partner that they are forgetful and unreliable. The partner, therefore, begins to doubt their memory of events and become dependent on the abuser's memories.
  • In a workplace setting, a boss tells an employee that their work is not good enough, despite them achieving excellent results. The employee begins to doubt their abilities and may become emotionally distraught and anxious.
  • In a family setting, a parent tells their child that they are worthless and nobody likes them. The child begins to have low self-esteem and may struggle with mental health concerns in the future.

Gaslighting can leave long-lasting physical and emotional effects. Identifying and understanding its impact is the first step in addressing it.

Coping with Gaslighting

Gaslighting is a form of emotional abuse that can have lasting effects on a person's mental health. Whether it is experienced in a romantic relationship, workplace, or anywhere else, it can be challenging to cope with. However, there are coping mechanisms that individuals can use to help them navigate a gaslighting situation.

Building a support system is crucial for individuals dealing with gaslighting. This support system can be composed of trusted friends, family members, or even professionals such as therapists or online support groups. It's important to find people who will validate and believe the individual, as gaslighters often try to make it seem like the victim is the problem.

Recordkeeping and validating emotions can also be helpful in coping with gaslighting. Gaslighters often make the victim doubt their perceptions, so writing down incidents or conversations can help individuals maintain a sense of reality. Keeping a journal can help validate emotions and provide a safe space to express feelings.

Therapeutic interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or dialectical behavior therapy, can be beneficial for individuals dealing with gaslighting. A therapist can help them identify negative thought patterns, coping mechanisms, and self-care techniques. They can also help individuals acquire new tools that they can use to address the gaslighting behavior effectively.

Positive affirmations and self-care techniques can also be useful in helping individuals cope with gaslighting. Engaging in self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, or hobbies, can help distract the individual from negative thoughts and promote relaxation. Additionally, practicing positive affirmations such as "I am worthy," "I am enough," and "I am deserving of respect" can help reinforce self-worth and combat the negative effects of gaslighting.


Recalling the impact of Gaslighters in the lives of the victims emphasizes the need to have a better understanding of how to address the issue and care for oneself. As a victim of Gaslighting, it is essential to empower oneself by seeking help from family and friends, keeping records of incidents, and consulting mental health professionals.

Furthermore, a combination of therapeutic interventions, positive affirmations, and other self-care techniques can restore self-confidence and rebuild self-esteem. By recognizing the signs of Gaslighting, validating emotions, and seeking help, individuals can regain control of their lives.

It is crucial to understand that Gaslighting is not the victim's fault, and it is important to address the stigma surrounding mental health. By creating a safe space to talk about mental health and raise awareness about Gaslighting, it is possible to support victims and promote healing. In conclusion, Gaslighting is a significant issue that should be taken seriously, and the victims' mental health should be prioritized.


1. What is gaslighting?

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that involves causing another person to question their own sanity, memory, or perception of reality. This can be done through a variety of tactics, including denying facts or events, twisting words or actions, and using emotional manipulation.

2. How does gaslighting affect mental health?

Gaslighting can have severe consequences on a person's mental health. It can cause depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and even PTSD and trauma. Victims may experience a loss of trust in themselves and their judgment, and they may struggle to maintain healthy relationships as a result.

3. How can I identify gaslighting?

There are several red flags to look out for when identifying gaslighting. These include the abuser denying things that have happened, blaming the victim for their own behavior, and minimizing the victim's feelings. Gaslighters may also use manipulation tactics such as gaslighting through social interactions and isolation, and they may target those closest to them.

4. What are some ways to cope with gaslighting?

If you are being gaslit, it is important to build a support system of people you trust and who support you. This can include friends, family members, or a therapist. Keeping a journal of your experiences can also help you to validate your emotions and remember what actually happened. Therapeutic interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy can be helpful in addressing the effects of gaslighting. Engaging in positive affirmations and self-care techniques, such as yoga or meditation, can also help to build resilience.

5. How can we address the stigma surrounding gaslighting and mental health?

One way to address the stigma surrounding gaslighting and mental health is to raise awareness and start conversations about these issues. Educating ourselves and others about the signs and effects of gaslighting can help to break down the cultural attitudes that enable and perpetuate this behavior. Seeking professional help for mental health issues is important, and it is equally important to create safe spaces where it is okay to talk about these experiences without fear of judgment or retaliation.

William H. McDaniel, MD

Dr. Robert H. Shmerling is the former clinical chief of the division of rheumatology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), and is a current member of the corresponding faculty in medicine at Harvard Medical School.

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