Does Running Cause Arthritis?
No, running does not cause arthritis. Recent research has shown that running may actually have a protective effect on joint health by stimulating natural mechanisms that help prevent arthritis.
As the popularity of running continues to grow, so does the debate about its impact on joint health. For many years, it has been widely believed that running can lead to arthritis, particularly in the knees. But is this belief based on fact or fiction?
In this article, we will explore the relationship between running and arthritis. We will examine the latest research, consider the factors that can influence joint health, and provide practical advice for runners and non-runners alike.
What is Arthritis?
Arthritis is a term used to describe inflammation of the joints. It can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. There are many types of arthritis, but the most common is osteoarthritis. This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that covers the ends of bones wears down over time, causing bones to rub against each other.
Osteoarthritis is often described as a wear-and-tear condition, as it is more common in older adults and those who have had long-term joint stress. However, it can also occur as a result of injury, infection, or genetic factors.
The Running-Arthritis Debate
The idea that running can cause arthritis has been around for many years. It is often based on the belief that the repetitive impact of running can damage the joints and wear down cartilage over time. However, recent research has challenged this belief, suggesting that running may actually be protective for joint health.
Mounting evidence suggests that running does not cause osteoarthritis, or any other joint disease.Dr. Robert H. Shmerling, Senior Faculty Editor at Harvard Health Publishing
The Evidence for Running
Several studies have examined the relationship between running and arthritis, with varying results.
One study published in 2017 found that recreational runners had lower rates of hip and knee osteoarthritis (3.5%) compared to competitive runners (13.3%) and non-runners (10.2%). This suggests that running may have a protective effect on joint health.
Similarly, a 2018 study of 675 marathon runners found that the rate of hip or knee arthritis was half the expected rate for the general US population.
Another analysis of 24 studies in 2022 found no evidence of significant harm to the cartilage lining the knee joints on MRIs taken just after running.
The Challenges of Studying Running and Arthritis
Despite these findings, studying the impact of running on joint health is challenging. There are several factors to consider, including:
- Timeframe: Arthritis is a condition that develops slowly over time, often taking many years to become noticeable. This makes it difficult to conduct long-term studies that can definitively link running with arthritis.
- Confounding factors: There are many other factors that can influence joint health, such as weight, diet, genetics, and injury history. These factors can make it difficult to isolate the impact of running on arthritis risk.
- Individual differences: Running affects people differently based on factors such as age, gender, and fitness level. It's possible that running may have different effects on joint health for different individuals.
How Running Affects Joint Health
To understand the impact of running on joint health, it's important to consider the mechanics of the activity.
Running involves repeated impact forces on the joints, particularly the knees. This can cause microtrauma to the cartilage, which may lead to inflammation and pain. However, the body has natural mechanisms to repair this damage, such as increased production of lubricating fluid and tissue growth. Over time, the joints can adapt to the impact of running, becoming stronger and more resilient.
One study published in 2019 found that running may actually stimulate the production of joint-protecting compounds called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are important components of joint cartilage, and their increased production may help protect against osteoarthritis.
Another study published in 2021 found that running may increase the concentration of a protein called lubricin in joint fluid. Lubricin acts as a natural lubricant for the joints, reducing friction and protecting against wear and tear.
These findings suggest that running may have a positive effect on joint health, by stimulating natural mechanisms that protect against arthritis.
Factors that Influence Joint Health
While running can have positive effects on joint health, it's important to consider other factors that can impact joint health, both positively and negatively.
Carrying excess weight can put stress on the joints, particularly the knees. This can increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis. However, losing weight can reduce this risk. Running can be an effective way to lose weight, provided that it is done safely and gradually.
A healthy diet can help support joint health by providing essential nutrients for cartilage and bone health. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats can help protect against arthritis.
Previous joint injuries, particularly those that were not properly treated or rehabilitated, can increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis. Runners should take steps to prevent and treat injuries, such as proper warm-up and cool-down routines, stretching, and cross-training.
Genetic factors can play a role in the development of osteoarthritis. However, lifestyle factors such as exercise and diet can also influence genetic expression.
The idea that running causes arthritis is a myth that has been challenged by recent research. While it's true that running involves impact on the joints, this impact can actually stimulate natural mechanisms that protect against arthritis. However, other factors such as weight, diet, injury history, and genetics can also influence joint health.
If you enjoy running, there's no need to worry about damaging your joints. With proper training and injury prevention strategies, running can be a safe and effective form of exercise that provides numerous health benefits. And if running isn't your thing, there are plenty of other ways to stay active and protect your joints. The key is to find an activity that you enjoy and that keeps you moving.
- "Running and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27519678/ This article published in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine provides a detailed analysis of the relationship between running and knee osteoarthritis. It includes a review of the literature, as well as a meta-analysis of several studies.
- "Does Running Wear Out Your Knees?" https://www.health.harvard.edu/healthbeat/will-continuing-to-run-make-my-knees-wear-out-faster This article from Harvard Health Publishing provides an overview of the research on running and joint health. It includes information on the potential benefits and risks of running, as well as practical advice for runners.
- "Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk?" (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684060/): This article from the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons examines the relationship between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on recreational and competitive running. It includes a review of the literature and a discussion of the potential mechanisms involved.
- "Effects of Running and Walking on Osteoarthritis and Hip Replacement Risk" (https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/2018/10000/Effects_of_Running_and_Walking_on_Osteoarthritis.7.aspx): This article published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise examines the effects of running and walking on the risk of osteoarthritis and hip replacement. It includes a review of the literature and a discussion of the potential benefits and risks of these activities.